Arrays class now has a number of parallelized operations.
Arrays.parallelSort: sort an array of primitive values or objects.
You can supply a
You can supply the bounds of a range.
parallelSetAll: fills an array with values that are computed from a function. The function receives the element index. There are versions for all primitive type arrays and for object arrays.
parallelPrefix: replaces each array element with the accumulation of the prefix for a given associative operation.
This can be parallelized in this way: join neighboring elements first, then update the indicated elements by multiplying them with elements that are one or two positions below.
java.util.concurrent library provides a
Future<T> interface to denote a value of type
T that will be available at some point in the future.
Completable futures make it possible to compose asynchronous operations.
Consider a method that reads a web page in a separate thread, which is going to take a while. When you call it, the method returns right away, and you have a
Suppose we want to extract all URLs from the page in order to build a web crawler. We have a class
Parser with a method
How can we apply it to the future object? First, call the
get method on the future to get its value when it becomes available. Then, process the result:
No better off than with a method
public String readPage(URL url) that blocks until the result is available.
Provides the feature to set “when the result becomes available, here is how to process it”. A
CompletableFuture has a method
thenApply to which you can pass the post-processing function.
thenApply method doesn’t block either. It returns another future. When the first future has completed. its result is fed to the
getLinks method, and the return value of that method becomes the final result.
This composability is the key aspect of the
CompletableFuture class. Composing future actions solves a problem in programming asynchronous applications.
Pipeline of futures starts out by generating a
CompletableFuture, usually with the static method
supplyAsync. That method requires a
Supplier<T>, that is, a function with no parameters yielding a
T. The function is called on a separate thread.
runAsync: takes a
Runnable, yielding a
CompletableFuture<Void>. Useful if you simply want to schedule one action after another, without passing data between them.
All methods ending in
Async have two variants. One runs the provided action on the common
ForkJoinPool. The other has a parameter of type
java.util.concurrent.Executor, and it uses the given executor to run the action.
Next, you can call
thenApplyAsync to run another action, either in the same thread or another. With either method, you supply a function and you get a
U is the return type of the function.
You can have additional processing steps. Eventually, you will be done.
thenAccept: takes a
Consumer, a function with return type
void. Ideally, you would never call
get on a future. The last step in the pipeline simply deposits the result where it belongs.
You don’t explicitly start the computation. The static
supplyAsync method starts it automatically, and the other methods cause it to be continued.
Adding an Action to a CompletableFuture
|thenApply||T -> U||Apply a function to the result|
|thenCompose||T -> CompletableFuture||Invoke the function on the result and execute the returned future|
|handle||(T, Throwable) -> U||Process the result or error|
|thenAccept||T -> void||Like thenApply, but with void result|
|whenComplete||(T, Throwable) -> void||Like handle, but with void result|
|thenRun||Runnable||Execute the Runnable with void result|
For each method shown, there are also two
T -> U is Function<? super T, U>
CompletableFuture<U> future.thenApply(f) and
CompletableFuture<U> future.thenApplyAsync(f) return a future that applies f to the result of future when it is available. The second call runs f in another thread.
thenCompose: takes a function
T -> CompletableFuture<U>.
Here we have two functions: T -> CompletableFuture and U -> CompletableFuture
handle: handles an exception thrown in a CompletableFuture. The supplied function is called with the result (or null if none) and the exception (or null if none), and it gets to make sense of the situation.
Combining Multiple Composition Objects
|thenCombine||CompletableFuture, (T, U) -> V||Execute both and combine the results with the given function.|
|theAcceptBoth||CompletableFuture, (T, U) -> void||Like thenCombine, but with void result.|
|runAfterBoth||CompletableFuture<?>, Runnable||Execute the runnable after both complete.|
||When a result is available from one or the other, pass it to the given function|
||Like applyToEither, but with void result.|
|runAfterEither||CompletableFuture<?>, Runnable||Execute the runnable after one or the other completes.|
|static allOf||CompletableFuture<?>…||Complete with void result after all given futures complete.|
|static anyOf||CompletableFuture<?>…||Complete with void result after any of the given futures completes.|
The first three methods run a
CompletableFuture<T> and a
CompletableFuture<U> action in parallel and combine the results.
The next three methods run two
CompletableFuture<T> actions in parallel. As soon as one of them finishes, its result is passed on, and the other result is ignored.
anyOf methods take a variable number of completable futures and yield a
CompletableFuture<Void> that completes when all of them, or any one of them, completes. No results are propagated.
Technically speaking, the methods accept parameters of
CompletableFuture. That is an interface type with almost forty abstract methods, currently implemented only by